Invasive plants earn their label by growing and reproducing faster than native species in the same growing conditions. Free from the predators, diseases, and other plants that keep them in check in their native ranges, they monopolize the light, water, and other nutrients all plants need. Sometimes these dense colonies even alter the air temperature and soil chemistry around them, further squeezing out other plants and the animals that depend on them.
Invasive plants are a huge threat to biodiversity and sustainable ecosystems.
Steps you can take to control them.
1. Know Invasive Plants
Fortunately, there are relatively few plant species that are causing the most damage. Below is a list of the most egregious thugs along with images. The Rhode Island Invasive Species Council lead by the Rhode Island Natural History Survey has compiled the most official full list organized by type of plant for 2020.
The information below comes from the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. It has posted most of the plants on RINHS list with links to a wealth of information and large sized images of each of the plants including information about removing them. The Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystems is invaluable, offering comprehensive information about thousands of invasive plants, insects, pathogens and other species.
There are however many other invasives. iNaturalist can help you identify plants. There are however some native plants that are aggressive and can spread easily. While they are not recommended for small areas, they are not considered invasive because they do not usurp the ecological functions of other native plants.)
◊For ongoing information about invasives check out badplantsri on Instagram
◊Prefer a downloadable pamphlet with some of the most invasive species? See Invasive Plants: The Threat They Pose from Friends of Canonchet Farm
2. Don’t Grow Invasives
You might find that you have some of these invasives in your yard. You may have even planted some. That is understandable. When these plants were first brought to this area many were grown for their hardiness and ability to grow quickly. But these plants in particular are very aggressive and take over. Don’t plant them, divide them or give them to friends. (Rhode Island is one of the few states that does not restrict the sale of invasive plants so some of these. are available and promoted for sale.)
3. Control Invasives
Be vigilant. The best time to control invasive plants is when the are just getting started. If you see a new plant on property you maintain and know it is an invasive, remove it as soon as possible. Once established they are much harder to control. The Native Plant Trust has recommendations for how to remove common invasives.
The most ecologically sound method is preventing new growth by pulling them out and removing all growth above the ground. Since plants survive by photosynthesis, they will eventually starve with repeated removal of all the above ground portion of the plant. Other methods include, depriving the plant of light or using the sun to super heat the soil (solarizing). Herbicides should always be used as a last resort as they can and do cause environmental harm. Also make sure to dispose of the plant waste in a way that does not allow them to spread. Ideally this waste should be burned or composted at high heat to kill the plant entirely.
4. Replace Invasives with Natives
Once you remove the plants you need to replant or the invasives are likely to come right back. Disturbed uncovered soil can be a magnet for invasives. The Native Plant Trust has a brochure showing plants native to New England to use in place of their invasive counterparts. The University of Delaware has more complete recommendations.